一般现在时(The Simple Present/The Present Indefinite Tense)
1. 构成
用动词原形,第三人称单数有变化。基本变化规则是:一般情况加“-s”,以辅音加“y”结尾的词把“y”改为“i”,再加“-es”(但元音加“y”结尾的则直接加“-s”),以“o,s,x,ch,sh”结尾的词在词尾加“-es”。动词be的变化形式是is,am,are;动词have 的变化形式是have, has。

2. 功能
ZZ1 表示习惯的、永久性的或反复发生的动作(常同every day, often,sometimes,usually,always,twice a month,every week,on Sundays,occasionally, normally, generally, weekly, now and then, every so often, as a rule, rarely等状语连用)

He seldom eats meat. 他很少吃肉。

I never sit up late into the night. 我从不晚睡。

She always takes a walk in the evening. 她常在晚间散步。

The world always makes way for the dreamer. 这世界永远会为追求理想的人让出一条光明大道。

ZZ2 表示特征、能力或现时的情况或状态

She loves music. 她喜欢音乐。

Contradictions exist everywhere. 矛盾处处存在。

They don't speak French here. 这儿不讲法语。

She lives in a villa at the foot of the hill. 她住在山脚下的一栋别墅里。

Those eventful months and years are still vivid in my memory. 忆往昔峥嵘岁月稠。

People enjoy reading about the rich and famous. 人们喜欢阅读有关富人和名人的书。

【提示】下面是一个歧义句:

She can't bear children.
她不能生育。
她受不了孩子们的嬉闹。

ZZ3 表示普遍真理、事实,也用在格言中

The earth moves round the sun. 地球绕太阳转。

Water boils at 100℃. 水的沸点是100℃。

No man but errs. 人非圣贤,孰能无过。

Pride goes before a fall. 骄者必败。

Spring follows winter. 冬天过后就是春天。

A stitch in time saves nine. 小洞不补,大洞吃苦。

Time and tide wait for no man. 时不待人。

Life is transient. 人生如朝露。

The seeds of the future lie in the present. 未来发展的萌芽存在于现在。

A bird in hand is worth two in the bush. 一鸟在手胜过二鸟在林。

Months ago we sailed ten thousand miles across this open sea, which is the Pacific, and we met no storms. 数月前,我们在公海——太平洋——上航行了10 000英里,没有遇到任何风暴。(地理名词)

ZZ4 在由when,if,after,before,although,as,as soon as,the minute,the next time,whether,even if,in case,though,till,until,unless,so long as,where,whatever,wherever等引导的表示时间、条件、比较等状语从句中,用一般现在时代替一般将来时

I'll tell her when she comes tomorrow. 她明天来的时候我会告诉她的。

You will surely succeed if you try your best. 功夫不负有心人。

I'll go where you go. 你去哪儿我也去哪儿。

I shall tell her the minute she gets here. 她一到那里我就告诉她。

I shall have a good time whether I win or lose. 我不论输赢都会很快活。

In the future I shall do as she says. 将来我要按她说的去做。

The earlier you leave,the earlier you'll be there. 你动身越早,到那里越早。

The next time you come,he will be a grown-up. 你下次来的时候,他就长大成人了。

Whatever happens,you should keep cool-headed. 不论发生什么,你都应该保持冷静。

You can drink as much as you like tomorrow, but not tonight. 明天你喝多少都行,但今晚不行。

When the grass dies back in autumn, these flowers will fade. 当青草在秋天枯萎时,这些花儿就会凋谢了。

【提示】

① 表示原因、结果、程度、目的等的状语从句,一般不可用一般现在时代替一般将来时。比较:

她伤得很重,恐怕要死了。
She is so badly injured that she probably dies. [×]
She is so badly injured that she will probably die. [√]

② 在let's see, let's assume, I hope, I suppose等后,用一般现在时和一般将来时均可。例如:

Let's see who finishes/will finish the work first. 咱们看看谁第一个完成工作。

Suppose the boy loses/will lose his way. 假如这小男孩迷了路怎么办。

Let's assume there is/will be heavy rain. What's to be done?让我们假设有一场大雨,该怎么办?

I hope she gets/will get everything ready before Friday. 我希望她在星期五之前把一切都准备好。

③ 在某些句子结构中用一般现在时和一般将来时均可。例如:

He'll be on the same train as you are/will be. 他将同你乘坐同一趟火车。

She will perhaps come earlier than you do/will. 她也许会比你来得早。

④ 如要表示“将来条件决定现在结果”,从句和主句所指的时间不同,if从句要用将来时,主句用一般现在时。例如:

If she won't arrive before half past eight, there's no point waiting. 如果她8点半之前到不了,再等就没有意义了。

If she won't be here before noon, there's no need to rush. 如果她中午以前不会来到,现在就没有必要着急了。

⑤ 在if条件从句中可用情态动词will。例如:

If the car won't start, call me any time. 如果车子发动不起来,随时叫我。

If he won't tell us the truth, we'll ask his classmates. 如果他不愿意告诉我们实情,我们将问他的同学。

比较:

If you will wait a moment, I'll go and tell the manager that you are here. 如果你愿意等一会儿,我就去告诉经理你在这里。
If you wait a moment, I'll let you in. 如果你等一会儿,我就让你进去。

ZZ5 表示现在瞬间

一般现在时可以用来描述动作的完成与说话的时间几乎是同时的这种情况,常用于体育运动的实况报道,戏法表演、技术操作表演等的解说词。例如:

I declare the meeting open. 我宣布,会议开幕。

Now,look,I open the box. 喏,看着,我打开盒子了。

As I write, the war has broken out. 在我写作的时候,战争已经爆发了。(=At the time of writing)

Demonstrator:Now I put the cake mixture into this bowl and add a drop of vanilla essence. 示范者:我现在把蛋糕配料放进这个碗里,加一点味精。

ZZ6 表示过去时间

一般现在时可以用来表示不确定的过去时间,只限于为数不多的动词,如:hear, tell, say, forget等;也可穿插现在进行时等来叙述往事,以增加描写的生动性和真实感,亦称作历史现在时。例如:

That is long,long ago. 那是很久很久以前的事了。

I hear he has come back from Japan. 我听说他从日本回来了。

Jane tells me you are entering college next year. 简告诉我,你明年要上大学了。

Julia says you told her to buy the book. 朱莉娅说你让她买这本书的。

Oh, I forget what he said. 哎呀,我忘了他的话了。

We learn from the radio that a severe snowstorm hit France. 我们从广播里获悉,一场严重的暴风雪袭击了法国。

Last week I am in the sitting-room with my wife when this chap next door staggers past and in a drunken fit throws a brick through our window. 上周我和妻子正在起居室里,隔壁的那个家伙摇摇晃晃地从房屋外面经过,突然发起了酒疯,朝我们的窗户扔进了一块石头。

比较:

他们告诉我你已经同意了。
They tell me that you've agreed to it. (用一般现在时,强调现在的事实或结果)
They told me you've agreed to it. (用一般过去时,强调未指明的过去时间)

ZZ7 表示将来时间

一般现在时可用于指将来时间,表示按时间表将要发生的动作或事件,或者事先安排好的动作。能这样使用的动词有:be, arrive, begin, come, start, depart, end, leave, go, sail, stop, return, dine, finish, open, close等。例如:

A:When does he leave for the south?他何时动身去南方?
B:He leaves next week. 他下周动身。

Is there a film tonight?今晚有电影吗?

I write my paper tomorrow. 我明天写我的文章。

Tomorrow is Christmas Day. 明天是圣诞节。

The meeting begins at 2:00 in the afternoon and ends at 5:00. 会议在下午2点开始,5点结束。

They meet at supper. 他们晚饭时会面。

When does the ship sail?船什么时候起航?

She retires next month. 她下个月退休。

How long does he stay? 他待多久?

Exams begin on Tuesday. 考试将于星期二开始。

I am in the office all day tomorrow. 我明天一整天都在办公室。

The contract expires in 2060. 合同将于2060年到期。

Who comes next? 下一个该谁了?

The parcel arrives the day after tomorrow. 包裹后天寄到。

When does she return from the holiday? 她什么时候度完假回来?

The plane takes off at eight and arrives in Beijing at eleven. 飞机8点起飞,11点到达北京。

Look at the timetable. Hurry up! Flight 4026 takes off at 18:20. 看看时刻表。快点!4026航班18点20分起飞。

【提示】suppose,assume,know,decide等后的宾语从句,一般现在时可表示较近的将来。例如:

I hope that you spend the summer here with us. 我希望你在这里同我们一起过夏天。

I suppose you don't do the work until next month. 我以为你要到下周才会做这项工作。

Tomorrow at this time we'll know who is elected. 我们明天这个时候就会知道谁当选了。

They will meet to decide who speaks at the meeting. 他们将见面决定谁在会上发言。

Assuming it rains tomorrow, what shall we do?设想明天下雨怎么办?

JJ 另外,一般现在时和现在进行时都可以表示将来,但前者多表示非个人的计划,指按时间安排将发生的事,而后者则一般表示说话人自己打算要干什么。比较:

I leave tomorrow. 我明天动身。(a plan not necessarily made by me)
I am leaving tomorrow. 我打算明天动身。(I have decided to leave.)

We start for Shanghai tomorrow morning. 明天上午我们去上海。(已计划好不变)
We are starting for Shanghai tomorrow morning. 明天上午我们将去上海。(打算,容有变动)

JJ 比较下面的不同时态:

Tomorrow is Sunday. 明天是星期天。(日历的规定)
Tomorrow will be Sunday. 明天将是星期天。(单纯未来)

你今晚有空吗?
Are you free this evening?(随便问问)
Will you be free this evening?(语气认真:如果有空,可否……)

ZZ8 在新闻标题、历史简介、小说章节标题或小说、电影、戏剧情节介绍和幻灯、图片的说明中,常用一般现在时

I Have A Chance 我有一个机会 (小说的章标题)

US President holds talks with British Prime Minister. 美国总统同英国首相举行会谈。

American Ambassador leaves Beijing. 美国大使离开北京。

At rise,the stage is dark. It is two thirty in the morning. 幕启,舞台一片昏暗。凌晨2点30分。(舞台说明)

The Queen arrives for the opening ceremony. 女王到来主持开幕式。(照片说明)

EX-PRESIDENT DIES 前总统逝世(标题)

Bank Robbery: Robbers take S10,000. 银行劫案:匪徒抢走10 000美元。

DNA Leads to Arrest in New York. Killing. DNA帮助逮捕发生在纽约的凶杀罪犯。

ZZ9 用来表示强硬语气、严厉警告或指点道路

You mind your own business. 你别管闲事。

Either he leaves or you leave. 要么他离开,要么你离开。

If he does that again,he goes to prison. 你要是再那样做就要坐牢。

You finish the work before ten o'clock tomorrow. 你明天上午10点前完成工作。

Into bed you go! 你快睡觉!

You take the first turning ahead,then cross a bridge and you see the city library. 前面转一个弯,然后过桥,你就会看见城市博物馆了。

ZZ10 代替现在完成时

动词learn,hear,see,understand,read,forget等表示“已知,已忘”时,可用一般现在时代替现在完成时;“it be+时间+since ...”结构可用一般现在时代替现在完成时。例如:

I forget/have forgotten her name. 我忘了她的名字。

I understand/have understood what he wants. 我理解了他要什么。

It is/has been years since I enjoyed myself so much as yesterday. 我已有很多年没有像昨天那样痛快了。

ZZ11 用于延续性动词或静态动词,表示持续状态、心理活动、爱憎、知觉等

The contract holds good. 合同有效。

John loves nature. 约翰喜欢大自然。

The material feels soft. 这材料摸上去很软。

I don't owe anything to anybody. 我谁也不欠。

ZZ12 表示仍旧有影响的已故人物的言行或状态,或引用书面材料

Confucius regards sex as human. 孔子视性为人之常情。

Chaucer writes that love is blind. 乔叟写道,爱情是盲目的。

Nietzsche advocates the doctrine of Will to Power. 尼采宣扬权力意志论。

Shelly says, “If winter comes, can spring be far behind?” 雪莱说:“冬天到了,春天还会远吗?”

Darwin thinks that natural selection is the chief factor in the development of species. 达尔文认为自然选择是物种进化的主要因素。

Dostoevsky draws/drew his characters from sources deep in the Russian soil. 陀斯妥耶夫斯基用植根俄罗斯土壤深处的真实形象来描绘他的人物。

ZZ13 用于定语从句或宾语从句中表示将来

这种用法中,主句动词词义使从句自然指将来情况,有时属于习惯用法。本用法中的主句常用一般将来时。例如:

He will give you anything you ask for. 你要什么他就会给你什么。

Anyone that comes will be warmly welcome. 谁来都会受到热烈欢迎。

She won't forgive anyone who steals flowers in her garden. 她不会宽恕任何从她花园里偷花的人。

A quarrel will arise as to who rules the country. 关于谁来统治这个国家,将会引发一场争吵。

Anyone who does it will get a gift. 谁做谁得礼品。

Call me later and tell me what you think then. 稍后给我打电话,把你那时的想法告诉我。

I'll be grateful for whatever help you offer me. 对于你给我的任何帮助,我都会很感激的。

I might come—I'll see how I feel tomorrow. 我也许会来——我要等明天看看身体怎样。

Please see that the room is straightened up before you leave. 你离开之前务必把房间整理好。

【提示】如果主句不指将来,只有从句指将来,从句谓语动词要用将来时。例如:

I don't know when he'll be back. 我不知道他什么时候回来。

I wonder if I'll recognize Philip after all these years. 过了这些年,我不知道是否还认得菲利普。

ZZ14 一般现在时与一般过去时的连用

有时候,在同一个复合句中,会出现一般现在时和一般过去时连用的现象,这是因为所取的时间点不同。例如:

As the town does not have any entertaining places to go,we spent the evening treating the foreign friends to some real Chinese food. 由于小城里没有什么娱乐场所可去,我们就请外国朋友们吃正宗的中国菜,晚上就这么消磨了。(从句用一般现在时does not have表示这个小城长期的客观情况,一般过去时spent则表示过去的某次行为动作)